"'From the native's point of view': On the nature of anthropological understanding."
|in Meaning in anthropology, p. 221-237 . Edited by K. Basso and H. Selby, K. Basso and H. Selby. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press1976.|
Now, without trying to tie up the dozens of loose ends I have not only left dangling in these rather breathless accounts of the senses of selfhood of nearly ninety million people but have doubtless frazzled even more, let us return to the question of what all this can tell us, or could if it were done adequately, about "the native point of view" in Java, Bali, and Morocco. Are we, in describing symbol uses, describing perceptions, sentiments, outlooks, experiences? And in what sense? What do we claim when we claim that we understand the semiotic' means by which, in this case, persons are defined to one another? That we know words or that we know minds?
In answering-this question, it is necessary, I think, first to notice the characteristic intellectual movement, the inward conceptual rhythm, in each of these analyses, and indeed in all similar analyses, including those of Malinowski-namely, a continuous dialectical tacking between the most local of local detail and the most global of global structure in such a way as to bring them into simultaneous view. In seeking to uncover the Javanese, Balinese, or Moroccan sense of self, one oscillates restlessly between the sort of exotic minutiae (lexical antitheses,categorical schemes, morphophonemic transformations) that make even the best ethnographies a trial to read and the sort of sweeping characterizations ("quietism," "drarnatism," "contextualisrn") that make all but the most pedestrian of them somewhat implausible. Hopping hack and forth between the whole conceived through the parts that actualize it and the parts conceived through the whole that motivates them, we' seek to turn them, by a sort of intellectual perpetual motion, into explications of one another.
All this is, of course, but the now familiar trajectory of what Dilthey called the hermeneutic circle, and my argument here is merely that it is as central to ethnographic interpretation, and thus to the penetration of other people's modes of thought, as it is to literary, historical, philological, psychoanalytic, biblical, or for that matter to the informal annotationof everyday experience we call common sense. In order to follow a baseball game one must understand what a bat, a hit, an inning, a left fielder, a squeeze play, a hanging curve, or a tightened infield are, and what the game in which these "things" are elements is all about. When an explication de texte critic like Leo Spitzer (1962) attempts to interpret Keats's "Ode on a Grecian Urn," he does so by repetitively asking himself the alternating question "What is the whole poem about?" "What exactly has Keats seen (or chosen to show us) depicted on the urn he is describing?," emerging at the end of an advancing spiral .of general observations and specific remarks with a reading of the poem as an assertion of the triumph of the aesthetic mode of perception over the historical. In the same way, when a meanings-and-symbols ethnographer like myself attempts to find out what some pack of natives conceive a person to be, he moves back and forth between asking himself, "What is the general form of their life?," and "What exactly are the vehicles in which that form is embodied?," emerging in the end of a similar sort of spiral with the notion that they see the self as a composite, a persona, or a point in a pattern. You can no more know what lek is if you don't know what Balinese dramatism is than you can know what a catcher's mitt is if you don't know what baseball is. And you can no more know what mosaic social organization is if you don't know what a nisba is than you can know what Keats's Platonism is if you are unable to grasp, to use Spitzer's own formulation, the "intellectual thread of thought" captured in such fragment phrases as "Attic shape," "silent form," "bride of quietness," "cold pastoral," "silence and slow time," "peaceful citadel," or "ditties of no tone."
In short, accounts of other peoples' subjectivities can be built up without recourse to pretensions to more-than-normal capacities for effacement and fellow feeling. Normal capacities in these respects are, of course, essential, as is their cultivation, if we expect people to tolerate our intrusions into their life at all and accept us as persons worth talking to. I am certainly not arguing for insensitivity here, and hope I have demonstrated it. But whatever accurate or half-accurate sense one gets of what one's informants are, as the phrase goes, really like does not come from the experience of that acceptance as such, which is part of ' one's own biography, not of theirs. It comes from the ability to construe their modes of expression, what I would call their symbol systems, that such an acceptance allows one to work toward developing. Understanding the form and pressure of, to use the dangerous word one morte time natives' inner lives is more like grasping a proverb, catching an illusion, seeing a joke-or, as I have suggested, reading a poem-than it is like achieving communion. (pp. 235-237)
Note that this is quite related to the activity of conversational analysts (and ethnomethodologists in general) when they attempt to demonstrate the ongoing sensitivity of speech to what is being constituted by this speech as relevant. The very fact that speech (human activity) constitutes the world means that this world is not predictable on abstract principles as they might be deduced by structural-functional argumentation, or by ethical considerations. The task of the the anthropologist is to trace both the activity that constitutes a world, and the actual properties of this world. Even if it appears that a particular arrangement is irrational (in relation to structural-functional arguments) or immoral (in relation to any ethical system), to the extent that the arrangement is being lived in by human beings, then it must be faced as a fact of humanity.