One of the major points of this chapter, as indicated in its title "The voice of the choir, the voices in the choir," is that the choir as choir, that is as successful instance of "choir" is not directly dependent on the ability of any of its participants to sing particularly well, or even, as in the case analyzed to sing at all.
This is an old analytic scandal first developed theoretically by Emile Durkheim when he wrote about "social fact" and "collective conscience."
It is a powerful distinction that is essential to the construction of analysis of social scenes that
It is our contention that performance in school can be "successful" (in that it does not break the routine of the school) even if it is "not successful" as routinely identified by the school. Indeed a successful school (i.e. a school that is not noticeable within the world of American schools) might require that some individuals "fail" (indeed on can argue that "50%" of all individuals must fail by falling "below the average"). In this sense (individual) "failure" is part of (a school's) "success."
On the same vain, choirs may appear to require that all participants (know how to) sing. In fact this is not the case. Participants who "cannot sing" may be asked to "mouth" the songs but not actually sing.
In other cases, as in the one we studied, the ignorance of some members is handled routinely. The evidence consists
|3.4||Asking for information (first occurence)||138|
|3.5||Asking for information (second occurence)||139|
|3.6||Giving information (first occurence)||139|
|3.7||Giving information (second occurence)||139|