Reproduction is thus both a psychological and cultural process. Rather, it is a cultural process first, with psychological implications. The second generation of Boasians, following Benedict, Mead and many others, might have said the same thing but ended up focusing so much on the psychological implications that they could not easily explain what they might have meant by cultural process. By default, it appeared that people were encultured essentially automatically, through all but unconscious processes in early childhood. Thus Freud, the pragmatist social psychologists and other early 20th century thinkers, produced a particular form of cultural theory that both affirmed the importance of culture, and made it almost impossible to define culture separately from psychology. The appeal of purely biological theories of human reproduction that we are now experiencing may be partially accountable by this inability by anthropologists to specify further what culture is all about.